Any person with high constant fever for more than one week along with any of the following symptoms: Poor appetite, Headache, Generalized aches and pain, Lethargy, abdominal pain and discomfort, sometimes chest congestion, diarrhoea, coated tongue, exposure to confirmed case of enteric or typhoid fever if present can be suffering from enteric or typhoid fever.According to WHO, the most recent estimates published in 2014, highlight approximately 21 million cases and 222 000 typhoid-related deaths occurring annually worldwide. According to another study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries, published by the Who Bulletin, the overall incidence in India was 493 cases per 100 000 person-years.
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection caused by a type of bacteria called Salmonella typhi. This isn’t the same bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning, but the two are related in the bacterial world. The Salmonella typhi bacteria will be in the stools of an infected person after they’ve been to the toilet. If they don’t wash their hands properly afterwards, they can contaminate any food or water they touch. Anyone else who eats this food or drinks the water may also become infected. Carriers of typhoid are a point to highlight. Up to 1 in 20 people who survive typhoid fever without being treated will become carriers of the infection. This means the Salmonella typhi bacteria continue to live in the carrier’s body and can be spread as normal in faeces or urine, but the carrier doesn’t have any noticeable symptoms of the condition.
Whatever the status of symptoms, it is always necessary to consult qualified health care professional for management. Meanwhile some home based remedies can be started on like: (1) application of cold compresses to help body temperature come down quickly; (2) drinking water to avoid de hydration; (3) “oral rehydration solutions” or ORS ,Electral is a commonly available ORS in India.You can buy these products at most large grocery stores and pharmacy’s, Depending on age 100 ml to 250 ml of ORS need to be given after each passage of stool, (4) to drink plenty of fluids and eat regular meals. You may find it easier to eat smaller meals more frequently, rather than three larger meals a day.
Management of Enteric or Typhoid Fever at the health care facility consists of any or all of the listed points (ONE) diagnosis of typhoid fever by analysing samples of blood, stools or urine. These will be examined under a microscope for the Salmonella typhi bacteria that cause the condition. The bacteria aren’t always detected the first time, so a series of tests may have to be done; If typhoid fever is confirmed, other members of your household may also need to be tested, to evaluate if the infection has been passed on to them; (TWO) Rehydration to replace the loss of fluid and electrolytes; (THREE) A careful abdominal examination, to evaluate for tenderness and distention; (FOUR) Medication with an antibiotics. It is also recommended to start regular food as soon as possible.
Enteric or Typhoid Fever is preventable by eating safely cooked, stored food and drinking safe water. When the safety of drinking water is questionable, boil it or if this is not possible, disinfect it with a reliable, slow-release disinfectant agent (usually available at pharmacies). Hand washing thoroughly with soap and proper sanitation is also essential to prevent Enteric or Typhoid Fever. It is also recommended not to eat seafood from a water source contaminated by infected faeces or urine; or eat raw vegetables that have been fertilised with human waste; or drink contaminated milk products. Avoid ice unless it is made from safe water.Vaccination against typhoid infection is available. The two main vaccines available to prevent typhoid fever are: (1) Vi vaccine – given as a single injection and (2) Ty21a vaccine – given as three capsules to take on alternate days. It’s important to remember that none of the typhoid vaccines are 100% effective.
Elimination of pathogen reservoir where the bacteria, viruses and parasites breed and multiply, educating people and health workers on early identification and faster management as we are trying through this video series will also probably help in the prevention of Enteric or Typhoid Fever.
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