Any person with high temperature i.e. fever which can reach 40C (104F) or higher along with any of the following symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, feeling or being sick, nausea and vomiting, widespread red rash, Mild bleeding (such as nose bleed, bleeding gums, or easy bruising) if present can be suffering from Dengue. Severe cases of Dengue can also lead to generalized convulsions, coma, symptoms of shock, spontaneous bleeding, pulmonary edema or accumulation of fluid in lungs, kidney failure and death.The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. The actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One recent estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically. In India, based on the data of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), the number of cases reported in 2013 was about 74 454 for dengue with 167 deaths.
Four closely related viruses cause dengue fever. The viruses are transmitted from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes to humans in a viral life cycle that requires both humans and these mosquitoes. There is no human-to-human dengue fever transmission. Once a mosquito is infected, it remains infected for its life span. A human can infect mosquitoes when the human has a high number of viruses in the blood (right before symptoms develop). Symptoms of infection usually start about four to 15 days after a mosquito bite transfers the viruses to the human.
Whatever the status of symptoms, it is always necessary to consult qualified health care professional for management.Home care for dengue fever is simply supportive care. Good oral hydration, pain control with paracetamol or other non-NSAIDs is usually adequate treatment for most people. However, there is no role for home care in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever or for dengue shock syndrome; depending on the patient’s condition, many physicians consider these conditions to be medical emergencies. Papaya leaf extract has been used to help increase platelet levels in some patients with dengue fever, but researchers caution that definitive studies are not yet available that confirms the utility of this treatment. Patients should consult their doctors before using this remedy.
Management of Dengue at the health care facility consists of any or all of the listed points (ONE) presumptive diagnosis of Dengue characteristic sequence of high fever, rash appearance, and other symptoms; (TWO) evaluation through complete blood test (CBC), along with coagulation studies. Low platelet and low white cell counts may occur with the disease. Blood and urine cultures plus a spinal tap may be done. A MAC-ELISA assay can also be done if available; (THREE) There is no specific medicine to treat dengue infection and the viral disease is usually self-limiting – supportive treatment is given including hydration, pain control, IV fluid hydration, blood transfusions, platelet transfusions and blood pressure support.
Prevention of Dengue involves protecting yourself against mosquito bites. It’s not possible to avoid mosquito bites completely, but the less one is bitten, the less one is likely to get Dengue. To avoid being bitten: one should stay somewhere that has effective air circulation and screening on doors and windows. If this is not possible, make sure doors and windows are closed properly. If not sleeping in an air-conditioned room, sleep under an intact mosquito net that has been treated with insecticide. Use insect repellent on your skin and in sleeping environments. Remember to reapply it frequently. Effective mosquito repellents are available in sprays, roll-ons, sticks and creams. Wear light, loose-fitting trousers rather than shorts, and wear shirts with long sleeves. This is particularly important during early evening and at night, when mosquitoes prefer to feed. One dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time.Elimination of pathogen reservoir where the bacteria, viruses and parasites breed and multiply, educating people and health workers on early identification and faster management as we are trying through this video series will also probably help in the prevention of Dengue.
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